|A High-Speed, Long-Distance and Wall-Penetrating Covert Channel Based on EM Emanations from DRAM Clock|
An air-gapped computer is physically isolated from unsecured networks to guarantee effective protection against data exfiltration. Due to air gaps, unauthorized data transfer seems impossible over legitimate communication channels, but in reality many so-called physical covert channels can be constructed to allow data exfiltration across the air gaps. Most of such covert channels are very slow and often require certain strict conditions to work (e.g., no physical obstacles between the sender and the receiver).
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Journal of Hardware and Systems Security
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